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Soybeans

Why Eat It
Varieties
Availability
Shopping
Storage
Preparation
Nutrition Chart


Why Eat It

Native to East Asia, soybeans have been a major source of protein for people in Asia for more than 5,000 years. Soybeans are high in protein (more than any other legume) and fiber, low in carbohydrates and are nutrient-dense. Phytochemicals in soybeans protect the heart against oxidation, inhibit blood clot formation, function as antioxidants and also exert anti-inflammatory actions. Soybeans, compared with other legumes, are higher in essential fatty acids, and are a good source of calcium, magnesium, lecithin, riboflavin, thiamin, fiber, folate (folic acid), and iron.

Studies have shown that soybeans may help to protect against osteoporosis; when people eat soy foods in place of animal proteins, far less calcium is excreted. As the protein in soybeans may inhibit iron absorption (as do other compounds in soy called phytates), it is advisable to consume vitamin C along with soybeans to increase iron absorption. Protein in soybeans may also be protective against heart disease, and the isoflavones in soybeans may help to thwart development of certain cancers. The nutritional magnitude of the versitile soybean is indeed impressive.

Soy protein is the only vegetable whose protein is complete. In fact, soy protein has attracted quite a bit of attention recently due to its ability to lower LDL ("bad" cholesterol) levels. Emerging details from years of research has prompted health professionals to request the government to officially give a stamp of approval for soy's cholesterol-lowering effects. Indeed, the Food and Drug Administration recently approved the cholesterol-lowering health claim for soy, indicating that daily consumption of 25 grams of soy protein (6.5 grams of soy protein per serving) may lower LDL cholesterol in those who have high cholesterol and who follow a low fat diet.

Soybeans also are a rich source of isoflavones, plant chemicals that have mild estrogenlike hormonal effects on the body. Genistein, an isoflavone in soybeans, is being studied for its potential to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Genistein is also believed to prevent development of plaque that builds up within the walls of coronary arteries. Another isoflavone in soybeans, daidzein, may be helpful in reducing risk of osteoporosis by slowing the breakdown of bone. Isoflavones are found not only in soybeans, but in some products derived from soybeans, such as soy milk, tofu, and tempeh. Some processed soy products may also have been fortified with isoflavones.

Varieties

The three major types of soybeans are fresh immature (green) soybeans, known as edamame, fresh mature soybeans, and dried soybeans.

Edamame: Edamame are sweet tasting large soybeans that are harvested prematurely, when the beans are still green. Sweet and delicate in flavor, edamame can be added to salads or soups or rice dishes.

Mature Soybeans: Mature soybeans are tan-colored and are harvested when they have fully matured.

Dried Soybeans: Dried soybeans, which are available at most health-food stores, are dense, pea-sized beans that require a long soaking before cooking.

Soy nuts: Soy nuts are roasted soybeans that resemble peanuts (like peanuts, soy nuts are high in fat).

Availability

Edamame are generally available year round, They are most commonly sold frozen in one-pound bags, but you may occasionally find them fresh and unfrozen. Look for them in Asian markets.

Mature fresh soybeans are sold in or out of the pod and are available year round. Look for them in Asian markets and local Chinatowns.

Dried soybeans can be found in health-food stores and some large supermarkets.

Soy nuts are generally sold in health-food stores. They are available salted and unsalted.

Shopping

When shopping for beans in the pod, look for firm pods, without any discoloration. Beans sold out of the pod should be plump and firm, not withered or mushy.

Shop for dried beans in stores with a brisk turnover and where the bins are covered.

Storage

Green soybeans (edamame) should be refrigerated and used within two days. Frozen edamame keep for several months. Mature soybeans should be refrigerated and used within a few days. Dried soybeans can be kept in an airtight container for up to a year.

Preparation

Edamame (fresh or frozen) should be boiled in salted water or steamed in the pod until piping hot, 10 to 15 minutes. Serve as an appetizer.

Mature soybeans should be boiled out of the pod until tender. As with any soybean, they are best cooked with other ingredients that are strongly flavored, since the soybeans themselves are not bringing much to the table.

Dried soybeans require overnight soaking and long slow cooking. They usually require about three hours to become tender. Because they are mild in flavor, they should be cooked with robust seasonings.

Nutrition Chart

Edamame/1/2 cup cooked

127
Total fat (g)
5.8
Saturated fat (g)
0.7
Monounsaturated fat (g)
1.1
Polyunsaturated fat (g)
2.7
Dietary fiber (g)
3.8
11
Carbohydrate (g)
10
Cholesterol (mg)
0
Sodium (mg)
13
Thiamin (mg)
0.2
Vitamin C (mg)
15
Calcium (mg)
131
Iron (mg)
2.3
Magnesium (mg)
54
Potassium (mg)
485

Dried Soybeans/1/2 cup cooked

149
Total fat (g)
7.7
Saturated fat (g)
1.1
Monounsaturated fat (g)
1.7
Polyunsaturated fat (g)
4.4
Dietary fiber (g)
5.2
14
Carbohydrate (g)
9
Cholesterol (mg)
0
Sodium (mg)
1
Riboflavin (mg)
0.3
Folate (mcg)
46
Iron (mg)
4.4
Magnesium (mg)
74
Potassium (mg)
443

Soy Nuts (salted)/1 ounce

128
Total fat (g)
6.1
Saturated fat (g)
0.9
Monounsaturated fat (g)
1.4
Polyunsaturated fat (g)
3.5
Dietary fiber (g)
2.3
11
Carbohydrate (g)
9
Cholesterol (mg)
0
Sodium (mg)
46
Riboflavin (mg)
0.2
Folate (mcg)
58
Magnesium (mg)
65


Date Published: 04/21/2005
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